Here is my writeup for my 2.32 glibc heap challenge (Dr. Xorisaurus) from CUCTF 2020; make sure to check out the writeup for my kernel challenge Hotrod as well!
One important concept to note about glibc 2.32 is the new mechanism of safe linking on the singly linked lists. This new protection scheme is discussed in depth here. Basically, for singly linked freelists (fastbins and tcache bins), free chunk fds are obfsucated by the following scheme: (stored pointer) = (address of fd pointer >> 12) ^ (fd pointer). With a heap leak, this protection can be easily bypassed as heap behavior in glibc is predictable, which is what this challenge will revolve around. Bruteforcing or leaking a copy of the stored pointer and applying some basic crypto knowledge can help you recover the original data as well in some cases (especially when the chunks in the list are close together).
In this challenge, we were given a libc with debug symbols, linker, and patchelf'd binary with the following protections:
Now, when reversing this binary, one should find 4 features.
You can fill a glass, examine a glass, drain a glass, and switch the contents of the glass according to the menu. There is also an initial sigalarm in the beginning, and you can only have a maximum of 25 glasses. Filling a glass is equivalent to an allocation; it finds an index in the global glasses array for you, requests for a size that is in the range of 0x60 and larger fastbin sizes, and reads in some data. Examining a glass can be useful for leakage, as it just puts() the content of the chunk out; note that examinations can only be used twice (which can be assumed to be for a libc leak and a heap leak). Draining is the equivalent of a free and it is safe as it nulls out the pointer in the global array. You can use this feature as many times as you can, but once you swap contents (feature 4), you can only free one more time. As for the swap function, you can use it to free a chunk, and then immediately reallocate based on 2 choices for sizes. After the allocation, the binary reads in 8 bytes. This where the 8 byte UAF comes in as the conditional is poorly written, so if you select an invalid choice, there will be no re-allocation and you will be reading into the freed chunk's metadata (take a look at the decompilation below). Now let's plan out our exploit:
One might make the mistake of thinking of using swap to create a double free, but the 8 byte UAF won't allow you to change tcache keys so freeing that chunk again will fail a malloc() check. Some might think about filling tcache and then applying a fastbin dup attack, but the fact that you can only free one more time after swapping prevents the bypass against the fastbin double free check.
To obtain a leak, one might be tempted to just free a chunk and then reallocate it to see the obfuscated pointer (and then shift left by 12 bits to recover heap base). However, the read call during the allocation requires at least one byte (unless pty is enabled server side), so 5 nibbles of the heap address will be missing. This means there would be 1 byte of entropy on the leak, but a proof of work is required for 3 bytes of a random sha256 hash on remote, so bruteforcing isn't as feasible.
A better way to obtain a leak is to abuse the behavior of scanf. When scanf reads in large payloads of characters that follow it's format specifier, scanf will begin to allocate from the heap. For example, if we send in 0x500 '1's, scanf will make a largebin allocation request from the heap. As one familiar with the heap might know, triggering largebin sized allocations will lead to malloc_consolidate() (source), which will go through the freed fastbins and consolidate them to unsorted (source). This malloc_consolidate() is the basis for another type of attack known as fastbin consolidation, which is discussed here in better depth. After malloc_consolidate(), the request for the large allocation will then cause the chunk in unsorted to be sorted into largebin. On the next request, one can use it to request a heap leak. The chunk will then be sorted into unsorted, from which we can easily grab a heap leak (feel free to debug this out when I attach my exploit later on if this seems confusing). This method of leaking really only came up after my teammate c3bacd17 found an unintentional bypass in one of my other challenges.
Once we have the leak, some basic math will allow you to abuse the 8 byte UAF to maliciously corrupt the obfuscated pointer. Note that 2.32 malloc()'s safe linking mechanism also ensures that the deobfuscated pointer is aligned. Because of this and the fastbin size check, we can no longer do the unaligned trick here for fastbin dup. We will have to rely on tcache poisoning here, and an evil obfsucated pointer can be created by xoring the address location of the fd right shifted by 12 bits with the target location.
I ended up targeting __free_hook and changed it to system, then "freed" a chunk with the string "/bin/sh" on it to pop a shell. As for the proof of work on remote, it can easily be handled by the proofofwork python library that automatically generates a proof.
The following is my final exploit with comments:
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